1) reflexivity and representations in writing
qualitative researchers today acknowledge that the writing of a qualitative text cannot be separated from the author, how it is received by readers, and how it impacts the participants and sites under study. All writing is "positioned " and within a stance. Writings are co-constructions, representations of interactive processes between researchers and researched. The silence is contradictory to qualitative research that seeks to hear all voices and perspectives.
Qualitative researchers need to position themselves in their writings. This is the concept of reflexivity in which the writer is conscious of the biases, values, and experiences that he or she brings to a qualitative research study. (One characteristics of good qualitative research is that the inquirer makes his or her "position" explicit: a. talks about his or her own experiences with the phenomenon being explored; b. how these part experiences shape the researcher's interpretation )
2)Audience for our writings
A basic axiom holds that all writers write for an audience. (Phenomenological study)One form was a general structure, four paragraphs in length, an approach that they admitted lost its richness and concreteness. Another form consisted of case synopses, each reporting the experiences of one individual and each two and a half pages in length.
3)Encoding our writings
The words we use encode our report, revealing how we perceive the needs of our audiences. Researchers encode qualitative studies for audiences other than academics.
4)Quotes in our writings
In addition to encoding text with the language of qualitative research, authors bring in the voice of participants in the study in the way of ample quotes (short eye-catching quotations, take up little space; embedded quotes, quoted phrases within the analyst's narrative; longer quotation used to convey more complex understandings ).
2. Overall and embedded writing strategies(p. 221)
1) Narrative writing structure: suggesting maximum flexibility in structure but emphasizing core elements that might go into the narrative study.
Overall structure: Two different narrative structures: a. provides narratives of a chronology of the lives of thre